The following research papers from various Journals and Periodicals document a lack of validity and reliability of voice stress.

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ABC News expose on Dr. Humble

Brenner, M., Branscomb, H. H., & Schwartz, G. E. (1979). Psychological stress evaluator - Two tests of a vocal measure. Psychophysiology, 16 (4), 351-357.

Cestaro, V. L. (1995). A Comparison Between Decision Accuracy Rates Obtained Using the Polygraph Instrument and the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer (CVSA) (Report No. DoDPI95-R-0002). Fort McClellan, AL- Department of Defense Polygraph Institute.

Cestaro, V. L. (1996). A comparison of accuracy rates between detection of deception examinations using the polygraph and the computer voice stress analyzer in a mock crime scenario. (Report No. DoDPI95-R-0004). Fort McClellan, AL- Department of Defense 

Cestaro, V. L., & Dollins, A. B. (1994). An analysis of voice responses for the detection of deception (Report No. DoDPI94-R-0001). Fort McClellan, AL- Department of Defense Polygraph Institute.

DoDPI Research Division Staff, Meyerhoff, J. L., Saviolakis, G. A., Koening, M. L., & Yurick, D. L. (2001).

Eriksson & Lacerda (2007)

Florida Study (2006) – University of Florida Voice Stress

Hollien et al. (2008) - Evaluation of the NITV CVSA, Journal of Forensic Sciences. Volume 53, No. 1.

Horvath, F. (1978). An experimental comparison of the Psychological Stress Evaluator and the galvanic skin response in detection of deception. 

Horvath, F. (1979). Effect of different motivational instructions on detection of deception with the Psychological Stress Evaluator and the galvanic skin response.

Horvath, F. (1982). Detecting deception: The promise and the reality of voice stress analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 2, 340-351. 

Janniro, M. J., & Cestaro, V. L. (1996). Effectiveness of detection of deception examinations using the computer voice stress analyzer.

Kubis, J. F. (1973) Comparison of voice analysis and polygraph as lie detection procedures (Contract DAD05-72-C-0217). U.S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, M.D.

Long, G. T., & Krall, V. L. (1990). The measurement of stress by voice analysis. Journal of social behavior and personality, 5(6), 723-731.

Lynch, B. E., & Henry, D. R. (1979). A validity study of the Psychological Stress Evaluator. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 11 (1), 89-94.

Nachshon, I., & Feldman, B. (1980). Vocal indices of psychological stress- A validation study of the Psychological Stress Evaluator. 

Nachshon, I. Elaad, E., & Amsel, T. (1985). The validity of the Psychological Stress Evaluator. 

NCJ Voice Stress Report (2002)

O’Hair, D., & Cody, M. J. (1987). Gender and vocal stress differences during truthful and deceptive information sequences.

Oklahoma Study (2007) – University of Oklahoma Voice Stress Study

Palmatier Study The Validity and Comparative Accuracy of Voice Stress Analysis

Podlesny, J. A., & Raskin, D. C. (1977). Physiological measure and the detection of deception.

Shipp, T., & Izdebski, K. (1981). Current evidence for the existence of laryngeal macrotremor and mictrotremor.

Suzuki, A., Watanabe, S., Taheno, Y., Kosugi, T., & Kasuya, T. (1973). Possibility of detecting deception by voice analysis. Reports of the National Institute of Police Science, 26, 62-66.

A Summary of the Testimony Before the Texas Legislature Regarding the Reliability and Validity of the Computer Voice Stress Analyzer.  A Summary by Victor L. Cestaro, Ph.D. March 7, 2001.

Timm, H. W. (1983). The efficacy of the Psychological Stress Evaluator in detecting deception. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 11, 62-68.

U.S. Department of Justice (2002) - Investigation and Evaluation of Voice Stress Analysis Technology

Virginia Board of Occupational Standards Review (2003)

Washington University Study - Research casts doubt on voice-stress lie detection technology. By Gerry Everding